The Plasmas and Nanomaterials Group, PLASNAMAT

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Previous Projects



proyecto 1

Amorphous Carbon (a-C) and Carbon Nitride (a-CN) films using Magnetron Sputtering (MS):

Effect of the frequency during deposition using a pulsed DC source.

Optical properties studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry

Biocompatibility of the a-C and a-CN films

Vibrational Spectra of the a-C and a-CN films deposited by MS

Corrosion resistance in simulated biological fluids.

Bacterial adhesion of amorphous carbon films


  1. E. Rodil, S. Muhl, S. Maca, A. C. Ferrari. Optical gap in Carbon nitride films. Thin Solid Films 433, 119-125 (2003). Citas: 52. FI: 2.023
  2. R. Olivares, S. E. Rodil, H. Arzate. In vitro studies of the biomineralization in amorphous carbon films. Surface and Coating Technology 177-178, 758-764 (2004). Citas: 30. FI: 2.294.
  3. S E. Rodil, S. Muhl. Bonding in amorphous carbon nitride, Diamond and Related Materials 13, 1521-1531 (2004).Citas: 98. FI: 1.906.
  4. S E. Rodil, R. Olivares, H. Arzate. In-vitro Cytotoxicity of Amorphous Carbon Film. Biomedical Materials and Engineering 15, 101-112 (2005). Citas: 35. FI: 1.026.
  5. S. E. Rodil, C. Ramírez, R. Olivares, H. Arzate, J. Reyes-Gasga, C. Magaña. Osteoblasts attachment on amorphous carbon films. Diamond and Related Materials 15, 1300-1309 (2006). Citas: 15. FI: 1.906.
  6. R. Olivares, S. E. Rodil, H Arzate, Osteoinduction properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon film evaluated in vitro. Diamond and Related Materials 16, 1858-1867 (2007). Citas: 31. FI: 1.906.
  7. D. Turcio-Ortega, SE Rodil, S Muhl, Corrosion behavior of amorphous carbon deposit in 0.89% NaCl by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Diamond And Related Materials 18(11) (2009) 1360-1368. Citas: 11. FI: 1.906.
  8. A. Almaguer-Flores, L. A. Ximénez-Fyvie, S. E. Rodil, Oral Bacterial Adhesion on Amorphous Carbon and Titanium Films: Effect of Surface Roughness and Culture Media, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials 92 (2010) 196-204.Citas: 37. FI: 2.22.
  9. Biocompatibility, Cytotoxicity and Bioactivity of Amorphous Carbon Films, S. E. Rodil, R. Olivares, H. Arzate, S. Muhl. Topics in Applied Physics Vol. 100 (2006) 55-75. Carbon: the future material for advanced technology applications. Editors G. Messina and S. Santangelo. Springer series. Citas: 1.
  10. Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Sandra E Rodil, Sharon L Hyzy, Ginger R Dunn, Argelia Almaguer-Flores, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan, Role of integrin subunits in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and osteoblast maturation on graphitic carbon-coated microstructured surfaces. Biomaterials 51 (2015) 69-79. FI: 8.1 (ISSN: 0142-9612) Citas: 6

Graduated Students: Samuel Maca (Physics Diploma), Rene Olivares-Navarrete (PhD), Víctor Antonio Mendoza Ibáñez (MsC), Claudia Ramírez Brizuela (Physics Diploma)

Acnowledgements: IN100701 DGAPA; I36965-N CONACYT



Titanium Nitride (TiN), Chromiun Nitride (CrN), Tanatalum Nitride (TaN) and Zirconium Nitride (ZrN)coatings were produced by a magnetron sputtering system under different conditions of the magnetic field configuration:

Effect on the structure and growth of the Films

Effect on the mechanical properties of the MeN films

Effect on the Corrosion Resistance

proyecto 2


  1. J. Olaya, S. E. Rodil, S. Muhl, L. Huerta. Influence of the Energy parameter on the microstructure of Chromium Nitride Coatings. Surface and Coating Technology 200, 5743-5750 (2006). Citas: 39. FI: 2.294.
  2. S. E. Rodil, J. J. Olaya. Unbalanced magnetic field configuration: Plasma and Film Properties. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 18, S1703-S1719 (2006). Citas: 26 .FI:2.332.
  3. S. E. Rodil, J. J. Olaya, S. Muhl, B. Bhushan, G. Wei. The influence of the magnetic field configuration on plasma parameters and microstructure of niobium nitride film. Surface and Coatings Technology 201, 6117-6121 (2007).Citas: 27. FI: 2.294
  4. J. Olaya, G. Wei, S. E. Rodil, S. Muhl. B. Bhushan, Influence of the ion-atom flux ratio on the mechanical properties of chromium nitride thin films. Vacuum 81, 610-618 (2007). Citas: 23. FI: 1.033.
  5. J. Olaya, S. E. Rodil, S. Muhl, Comparative study of niobium nitride coatings deposited by unbalanced and balanced magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 516 (23) 8319-8326 (2008).Citas: 42.FI: 2.032
  6. J. Olaya, L. Huerta, S. E. Rodil, R. Escamilla, Superconducting Niobium Nitride films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 516 (23), 8768-8773 (2008). Citas: 18. FI: 2.032.
  7. J. Olaya, D. Marulanda, S.E. Rodil, B. Bhushan, Mechanical properties of metallic nitrate deposits with UBM: efficient technology and environmentally clean. Revista Mexicana de Física 55(6) (2009) 425-431. FI: 0.321. Citas: 4.
  8. Jhon Olaya, Diana Marulanda, Sandra Rodil, Recubrimientos de nitruros metálicos depositados con UBM: tecnología eficiente y ambientalmente limpia, DYNA 164-77 (2010) 60-68. No FI. Citas: 7.
  9. Jhon Olaya, Diana Marulanda, Sandra Rodil, Orientación preferencial en nitruros metálicos depositados con el sistema UBM, Ingeniería e Investigación 30-1 (2010) 125-129. No FI.
  10. John Jairo Olaya, Ulises Piratoba, Sandra Elizabeth Rodil, Resistencia a la corrosión de recubrimientos de CrN depositados por PVD con UBM: Tecnología eficiente y ambientalmente limpia, Revista Latinoamericana de Metalurgia y Materiales 31-1(2011)44-51. FI:0.143 Citas: 3.
  11. J. Olaya, S. E. Rodil, G. I. Cubillos, Corrosion Resistance of Transition Metal Nitride Films Deposited by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering, Corrosão e Protecção de Materiais 30 (2011) (1) 14-23. Open Access no FI. Citas: 1. 
  12. J. F. Flores, J.J. Olaya, R. Colás, S.E. Rodil, B. S. Valdez, I. G. Fuente, Corrosion behaviour of TaN thin PVD films on Steels, Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology 41, 1-9 (2006).Citas: 7. FI: 0.495

Graduated Students: Héctor Roberto Miranda Pérez (MsC), Jhon Jairo Olaya Florez (PhD), Juan Francisco Flores Preciado (MsC)

proyecto 2c

Acknowledgements: IN100203 DGAPA


Surface modification to stainless steel substrates to improve their biofunctionality using metal oxide coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering.

proyecto 3a

Protein adsorption

Biocompatibility and Oseointegration

Corrosion resistance in physiological simulated fluids

proyecto 3b


  1. Turcio-Ortega, S. E. Rodil, S Muhl, Electrochemical behavior of Titanium thin films obtained by magnetron Sputtering. Materials Science (Medziagotyra) 14, 15-19 (2008). Citas: 3. FI: 0.404.
  2. Ramírez , S.E. Rodil, H. Arzate, S. Muhl, J. J. Olaya, Niobium Based Coatings for Dental Implants, Applied Surface Science 257 (2011) 2555-2559.Citas: 8. FI:1.895 Citas. 47.
  3. G. Ramírez , S.E. Rodil, S. Muhl, D. Turcio-Ortega, J.J. Olaya, M. Rivera, E. Camps, L. Escobar-Alarcón, Amorphous niobium oxide thin films, Journal of non-crystalline Solids 356 (50-51) (2010) 2714-2721.Citas: 48. FI: 1.576.
  4. René Olivares-Navarrete, Jhon Jairo Olaya, Claudia Ramírez and Sandra Elizabeth Rodil, Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings, Coatings 1(2011) 72-87; doi:10.3390/coatings1010072. Open Access no FI. Citas: 24
  5. P. N. Rojas, S. E. Rodil, Corrosion Behaviour of Amorphous Niobium Oxide Coatings, International Journal of Electrochemical Science 7 (2012) 1443-1458. FI:2.808 Citas: 14
  6. P. N. Rojas, S. E. Rodil, S. Muhl, G. Ramírez G., H Arzate.Biocompatibility and bio-corrosion resistance of amorphous oxide thin films. Biomaterials MRS Proceedings Volume 1244E (Electronic Content Only – No Book Published) Warrendale, PA, 2009
  7. I. García-Pérez, A. Almaguer-Flores, C. Ramírez-Brizuela, S.E. Rodil, Antibacterial Effect of Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys Modified By Biocompatible Transitions Metals, BIOMATERIALS, MRS Proceedings Volume 1277(Electronic Content Only – No Book Published) Warrendale, PA, 2010.
  8. Phaedra Silva-Bermudez and Sandra E. Rodil, Protein Adsorption on Amorphous Metal Oxide Thin Films: An FTIR/ATR and Ellipsometry study, BIOMATERIALS, MRS Proceedings Volume 1277, (Electronic Content Only – No Book Published) Warrendale, PA, 2010.
  9. Silva-Bermudez, S.E. Rodil, An overview of protein adsorption on metal oxide coatings for biomedical implants, Surface & Coatings Technology 233 (2013) 147–158. Citas: 25
  10. Silva-Bermudez, P., S. Muhl, Rodil S. E., A comparative study of fibrinogen adsorption onto metal oxide thin films, Applied Surface Science 282 , (2013) 351-362- FI: 1.895
  11. P. Silva-Bermudez and S. Muhl and M. Rivera and S. E. Rodil, A look into the interaction of metal oxide thin films with biological media: Albumin and Fibrinogen adsorption, MRS Online Proceedings Library, Volume 1376, January 2012, pp imrc11-1376-s11-o3, doi: 10.1557/opl.2012.280, Published online by Cambridge University Press 19 Mar 2012.

Graduated students: Victor Irahuen Garcia Pérez (MsC ), Jair Giovanni Ramírez González (MsC), Perla Nayuri Rojas Pelaez (PhD)

proyecto 3c

Acknowledgements: P45833R CONACYT;  IN102907 DGAPA


proyecto 4a

Addition of a secondary nanometric phase into the matrix of different coatings; amorphous carbon, metal nitrides. The deposition was done using co-sputtering from a single target or dual co-sputtering.

proyecto 4b

Antibacterial properties

Mechanical and Tribological Properties

Optical properties

Corrosion resistance


  1. Oral Bacterial Adhesion and Biocompatibility of Silver-Amorphous Carbon Films: A Surface Modification for Dental Implants. Argelia Almaguer-Flores, Sandra E. Rodil and René Olivares-Navarrete. Capítulo en Implant Dentistry – The Most Promising Discipline of Dentistry. Ilser Turkyilmaz. In-Tech ISBN 978-953-307-481-8. Octubre 2011.
  2. Coatings for dental Implants. P. Silva-Bermudez, G. Ramirez, S. E. Rodil en “Bio-tribocorrosion in biomaterials and medical implants”, Woodhead Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85709-540-4 (DOI : 10.1533/9780857098603.3.250). September 2013
  3. O. Garcia-Zarco, S. E. Rodil, M. A. Camacho-López, Deposition of amorphous carbon-silver composites, Thin Solid Films 518 (2009) 1493-1497.Citas: 21. FI: 2.023.
  4. Z. Montiel-González, S.E. Rodil, S. Muhl, A. Mendoza-Galván, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, Amorphous Carbon Gold Nanocomposite Thin Films: Structural and Spectro-ellipsometric Analysis, Thin Solid Films 519 (2011) 5924-5932. FI: 2.023 Citas: 9. 
  5. D. Oezer, G. Ramírez, S. E. Rodil and R. Sanjines, Electrical and optical properties of Ta-Si-N thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 114302 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.4766904. FI: 2.168 Citas: 3.
  6. M. A. Domínguez-Crespo, S. E. Rodil, A. M. Torres-Huerta, E. Ramírez-Meneses, G. Suárez-Velázquez, Structural and electrochemical performance of sputtered Al-Ce films on AA6061 aluminium alloy substrates, Surface and Coatings technology 204 (2009) 571-579.Citas: 8. FI: 2.294. 
  7. Miguel Antonio Dominguez, Aide Torres; Sandra Rodil; Beatriz Brachetti; Wencel de la Cruz, XPS and EIS studies of sputtered Al-Ce films formed on AA6061aluminun alloy in 3.5% NaCl, Journal Of Applied Electrohemistry 40-3(2010) 639-651. FI: 1.496. Citas: 8.
  8. G Ramírez, D Oezer, M Rivera, SE Rodil, R Sanjinés, TaSiN nanocomposite thin films: Correlation between structure, chemical composition, and physical properties, Thin Solid Films 558, 104-111 (2014). FI: 1.604 (ISSN: 0040-6090) Citas: 6.
  9. L Velasco, JJ Olaya, SE Rodil, Effect of Si addition on the structure and corrosion behavior of NbN thin films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering, Applied Physics A 122 (2) 1-10 (2016) FI: 1.23

proyecto 4c

Graduated Students: Oscar García Zarco (MsC), Dagoberto Cardona Ramírez (MsC), Gladys Guadalupe Suárez Velázquez (MsC), Jair Giovanni Ramírez González (PhD), Zeuz Montiel González (PhD)

proyecto 4d

proyecto 4e

Acknowledgements: IN103910 DGAPA


proyecto 6a

Use ellipsometry to study the optical and structural properties of different coatings.

proyecto 6b

Optical Functions of Thin Films

Effective medium model applied to nanocomposite coatings to estimate the percentage of secondary phases

Variations in the film surface optical conductivity as a consequence of the secondary phases in the nanocomposite coatings

proyecto 6c

Results reported as a complement in the articles concerning Nanocomposite Coatings

proyecto 6d

  1. NM Figueiredo, F Vaz, L Cunha, SE Rodil, A Cavaleiro, Structural, chemical, optical and mechanical properties of Au doped AlN sputtered coatings, Surface and Coatings Technology (2014). FI: 1.941 (ISSN: 0257-8972)
  2. Nasser Mohamed-Noriega, Moisés Hinojosa, Virgilio González, Sandra. Rodil, Polymer-based composite with outstanding mechanically tunable refractive index, Optical Materials 58, 18 (2016) FI: 2.26.

Acknowledgements: IX108004 DGAPA




Collaboration Project Mexico- European community

Our mission was the development of Bismuth thin films, Bismuth Oxide thin films and Nanocomposites of Metal Nitrides with Bi inclusions.



  1. Baron, P. Silva-Bermudez and S.E. Rodil, Sputtered Bismuth thin films as trace metal electrochemical sensors, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1477 © 2012 Materials Research Society, doi: 10.1557/opl.2012.1722.
  2. Enrique Camps, Sandra E. Rodil, J. Antonio Salas, Horacio V. Estrada,  A Detailed Study of the Synthesis of Bismuth Thin Films by PVD-Methods and their Structural Characterization,  Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1 © 2012 Materials Research Society, doi: 10.1557/opl2012.1703.
  3. Dagoberto Cardona, Enrique Camps, L. Escobar-Alarcón and Sandra E. Rodil, Influence of the ion energy on the structure of Bi and Fe2O3 thin films, Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing 110 (4), 949-955 (2013) DOI: 10.1007/s00339-012-7218-6 FI: 1.63 Citas: 2.
  4. F. Ortiz*, J. E. Alfonso**, J. J. Olaya*, S. E. Rodil, Producción y caracterización de recubrimientos de bismuto producidos con magnetrón desbalanceado pulsado, Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. 37 (143): 245-251, 2013
  5. Celia L Gomez, Osmary Depablos-Rivera, Juan C Medina, Phaedra Silva-Bermudez, Stephen Muhl, Andreas Zeinert, Sandra E Rodil, Stabilization of the delta-phase in Bi 2 O 3 thin films, Solid State Ionics 255, 147-152 (2014). FI: 2.046 (ISSN: 0167-2738) Citas: 17
  6. P Jagdale, M Castellino, F Marrec, SE Rodil, A Tagliaferro, Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride by metal organic chemical vapour deposition, Applied Surface Science 303, 250-254 (2014). FI: 2.112 (ISSN: 0169-4332) Citas: 2
  7. I Zumeta-Dubé, Victor-Fabían Ruiz-Ruiz, David Diaz, Sandra Rodil-Posadas, Andreas Zeinert, TiO2 sensitization with Bi2S3 quantum dots: The inconvenience of Sodium Ions in the Deposition Procedure. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118 (22), 11495-11504 (2014). FI: 4.814 (ISSN 1932-7447) Citas: 14
  8. Celia L Gomez, Osmary Depablos-Rivera, Phaedra Silva-Bermudez, Stephen Muhl, Andreas Zeinert, Michael Lejeune, Stephane Charvet, Pierre Barroy, Enrique Camps, Sandra E Rodil, Opto-electronic properties of bismuth oxide films presenting different crystallographic phases. Thin Solid Films 578 (2015) 103-112. FI:1.849 (ISSN: 0040-6090) Citas: 3
  9. Mariela Flores-Castañeda, Alejandro L Vega-Jiménez, Argelia Almaguer-Flores, Enrique Camps, Mario Pérez, Phaedra Silva-Bermudez, Edgardo Berea, Sandra E Rodil, Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 17 (11) 1-13 (2015) FI: 1.75
  10. Roberto Mirabal-Rojas, Osmary Depablos-Rivera, Celia L Gómez, Abril Fonseca-Garcia, Juan C Medina, Cecilia C Barrera-Ortega, Jonatan Pérez-Alvarez, Stephen Muhl, Enrique Camps, Sandra E Rodil, Reduction of the coefficient of friction of niobium nitride coatings by the addition of bismuth, Vacuum 125 146-153 (2016) FI: 1.68

bisnano1bisnano 2

Graduated Students:

Saúl Hidar Sánchez (Physics Diploma), Saúl Hidar Sánchez (MsC), Roberto Mirabal Rojas (MsC), Osmary Depablos Rivera (MsC), Juan Carlos Medina Álvarez (MsC), Jairo Alberto Barón Jaimez (MsC), Verónica Campos Ibarra (MsC), Celia Lizeth Gómez Muñoz (PhD)



Acknowledgements: CONACYT 125141-European Commission

PHOtoCathalytic Systems for CLean Energy and Environment Applications



“SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME, Marie Curie Actions, People, International Research Staff Exchange Scheme”


Photocatalytic materials for water remediation and H2 production by water splitting.


  1. Karen Barrera-Mota, Monserrat Bizarro, Micaela Castellino, Alberto Tagliaferro, Aracely Hernández, Sandra E Rodil, Spray deposited β-Bi 2 O 3 nanostructured films with visible photocatalytic activity for solar water treatment. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 14, 1110-1119 (2015) FI: 2.22 Citas: 4
  2. SM Thalluri, R. Mirabal-Rojas, O. Depablos-Rivera, S Hernández, N Russo, SE Rodil, Chemical induced porosity on BiVO4 films produced by double magnetron sputtering to enhance the photo-electrochemical response. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 17(27) 17821-17827 (2015) FI: 4.4 Citas: 3
  3. FM Sánchez-Arévalo, IM Garnica-Palafox, P Jagdale, J Hernández-Cordero, SE Rodil, AO Okonkwo, FC Robles Hernandez, A Tagliaferro, Photomechanical response of composites based on PDMS and carbon soot nanoparticles under IR laser irradiation. Optical Materials Express 5(8) 1792-1805 (2015) FI: 2.77 Citas: 1.
  4. JC Medina, M Bizarro, CL Gomez, O Depablos-Rivera, R Mirabal-Rojas, BM Monroy, A Fonseca-Garcia, J Perez-Alvarez, SE Rodil, Sputtered bismuth oxide thin films as a potential photocatalytic material, Catalysis Today 266 144-152 (2016) FI: 4.0
  5. R Mirabal-Rojas, O Depablos-Rivera, SM Thalluri, JC Medina, M Bizarro, J Perez-Alvarez, SE Rodil, A Zeinert, Effect of the KOH chemical treatment on the optical and photocatalytic properties of BiVO4 thin films, Applied Physics A 122 (4) 1-8 (2016) FI: 1.23
  6. Juan C Medina, Monserrat Bizarro, Phaedra Silva-Bermudez, Mauro Giorcelli, Alberto Tagliaferro, Sandra E Rodil, Photocatalytic discoloration of methyl orange dye by δ-Bi 2 O 3 thin films, Thin Solid Films 612 72-81(2016) FI: 1.75
  7. Tanveer A Gadhi, Agileo Hernández-Gordillo, Monserrat Bizarro, Pravin Jagdale, Alberto Tagliaferro, Sandra E Rodil, Efficient α/β-Bi 2 O 3 composite for the sequential photodegradation of two-dyes mixture, Ceramics International 42 (11) 13065-13073 (2016) FI: 2.62

phocs3phocs 4

Acknowledgements: European Commission 318977



Metal oxide biomedical coatings can be produced as amorphous or crystalline oxides; is there any difference in the bacterial adhesion, protein adsorption, biocompatibility, etc.?


  1. Argelia Almaguer-Flores, Phaedra Silva-Bermudez, Rey Galicia, Sandra E Rodil, Bacterial adhesion on amorphous and crystalline metal oxide coatings Materials Science and Engineering: C 57, 88-99 (2015) FI: 3.04 Citas: 2
  2. Abril Fonseca-García, J Pérez-Alvarez, CC Barrera, JC Medina, A Almaguer-Flores, R Basurto Sánchez, Sandra E Rodil, The effect of simulated inflammatory conditions on the surface properties of titanium and stainless steel and their importance as biomaterials, Materials Science and Engineering: C 66 119-129 (2016) FI: 3.05
  3. 1 Patent in process

Graduated Students:Victor Irahuen Garcia Pérez (PhD), Rey Galicia Palacios (MsC)



Acknowledgements: IG100113 DGAPA; IN118814 DGAPA; CONACYT-152995


Optimization of the synthesis of other metal bi-oxides and metal ternary-oxides for different applications.

Addition of Si into metal oxides to improve the mechanical and tribological properties.

Project in process.


  1. SB Brachetti-Sibaja, MA Domínguez-Crespo, SE Rodil, AM Torres-Huerta, Optimal conditions for the deposition of novel anticorrosive coatings by RF magnetron sputtering for aluminum alloy AA6082, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 615 (2014) S437-S443. FI: 2.390 (ISSN: 0925-8388)
  2. B. Brachetti-Sibajaa,b, M. A. Domínguez-Crespoc, d, S.E. Rodile, A. M. Torres-Huerta, Influence of Surface Pre-treatment on Electrochemical Properties of CeO2 Thin Films Deposited by R.F. Sputtering on AA7075 Aluminum Alloy, ECS Transactions, 47 (1) 157-166 (2013) Citas: 3
  3. Roberto Mirabal-Rojas, Stephen Muhl, Sandra E Rodil, Enrique Camps, Michael Lejeune, Andreas Zeinert, Effect of the addition of Si into Nb2O5 coatings on their structural, optical, and mechanical properties, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A 34 (4) 041518 (2016) FI: 0.61

Graduated Students: SB Brachetti-Sibaja (PhD)

Acknowledgements: IN100116 DGAPACONACYT-251279


Acknowledgement: CONACYT-PRODECYT 251046


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